Here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your selection of works cited has to start at the end of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, utilising the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and names that are middle given. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months into the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the a number of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and start to become consistent. With all the month-day-year style, make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, if you utilize a pc, then publication names should be in italics since they are below. Always check along with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the initial line of an entry should always be left that is flush while the second and subsequent lines must certanly be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule will be titles that are periodical proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and is followed by the quantity number which, with all the title, can be italicized.
When there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name regarding the author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list just the first one and use et al. for the remainder.
Put the date of publication in parentheses http://custom-writings.net/ soon after the name for the author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes round the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes associated with imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, as with newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, make reference to the specific document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) just after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy goes to another line after a slash or before an interval. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find a number of this given information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and website that is complexsuch as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization in addition to relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.
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